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Virginia Tech's STAR helmet ratings

Summary: Virginia Tech University has developed a methodology for testing helmets for their ability to reduce concussions. After football and hockey helmets, they launched ratings for bicycle helmets in June of 2018. We have some reservations about their methodology, but strongly support the concept of trying to test and rank helmets for low-level impact performance. We have a page listing helmet models where the STAR ratings and Consumer Reports ratings concur. This page was updated on April 1, 2020.

Virginia Tech's Biomechanical Engineering department has been involved in concussion research in football for a number of years, outfitting teams with sensors to detect concussion-level hits and developing a very large database of hits and diagnoses. They developed a program called STAR ratings based on that research, rating football helmets on their ability to prevent concussions. Although there is no agreement among helmet and concussion experts that the ratings are based on exact concussion parameters, we think they represent a valid attempt to use lab testing to highlight concussion-level performance.

After football, VT took on hockey helmets. Then in 2018 they developed a program to rate bicycle helmets. It was headed up by Megan Bland, a Graduate Research Assistant and PhD Candidate at the VT Helmet Lab in their Department of Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics. She was working with Dr. Steven Rowson and Craig McNally, and the methodology is similar to the football and hockey helmet programs. Their STAR ratings page has all the details. Here is a video of the test methods that summarizes the testing. The project was funded by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, and they have been publicizing it.

Standards development has lagged far behind the increased concern with concussion-level impacts. The science of concussions is still developing, and standards-makers are reluctant to introduce new benchmarks until the exact anatomical parameters are clear. The resultant helmets might not be any better than today's. The VT approach is an attempt to use field data to get close enough to concussion causality to rate helmets on their ability to perform in the range of impacts that lead to concussions. For that reason we consider their program an important advance in helmet testing.

The bicycle helmet impact tests evaluated a helmet's ability to reduce linear acceleration and rotational velocity of the head from a range of impacts a cyclist might experience. The risk formula is designed to identify helmets that may provide a reduction in injury. The models at the top in March of 2021: Fox Dropframe Pro (MIPS), Lazer G1 MIPS Lazer G1 MIPS, Bontrager Rally MIPS, Specialized Align II (MIPS), Troy Lee Designs A2 MIPS, Lazer Century MIPS Lazer Century MIPS, SCOTT Centric Plus (MIPS) SCOTT Centric Plus (MIPS), Giant Rev Pro MIPS Giant Rev Pro MIPS, Lazer Sphere MIPS Lazer Sphere MIPS, Lazer Cyclone MIPS Lazer Cyclone MIPS, POC Octal X SPIN POC Octal X SPIN, SCOTT ARX PLUS (MIPS) 2020 SCOTT ARX PLUS (MIPS) 2020, Bontrager Specter WaveCel Bontrager Specter, Fox Speedframe Pro (MIPS) Fox Speedframe Pro (MIPS), Bontrager Ballista MIPS Bontrager Ballista MIPS, Lazer Anverz NTA MIPS Lazer Anverz NTA MIPS, Troy Lee Designs A3 MIPS Troy Lee Designs A3 MIPS, Lazer Jackal MIPS Lazer Jackal MIPS, Bontrager Starvos WaveCel Bontrager Starvos WaveCel, Giro Tyrant Spherical Giro Tyrant Spherical, Bell Z20 MIPS Bell Z20 MIPS, Specialized Prevail 2 Vent (MIPS) Specialized Prevail 2 Vent (MIPS), Bontrager Solstice MIPS Bontrager Solstice MIPS, Troy Lee Designs A1 Classic MIPS Troy Lee Designs A1 Classic MIPS, POC Tectal Race Spin POC Tectal Race Spin, Bontrager XXX WaveCel Bontrager XXX, Bell Formula MIPS Bell Formula MIPS, Bontrager Rally WaveCel Bontrager Rally WaveCel, Lazer Z1 MIPS Lazer Z1 MIPS, Giro Manifest Spherical Giro Manifest Spherical, Specialized Echelon II MIPS Specialized Echelon II MIPS, Bontrager Velocis MIPS Bontrager Velocis MIPS, Rudy Project Racemaster MIPS Rudy Project Racemaster MIPS, Lazer BLADE+ MIPS Lazer BLADE+ MIPS, Louis Garneau Raid MIPS Louis Garneau Raid MIPS, Bell Z20 Aero MIPS Bell Z20 Aero MIPS, Giro Aether Spherical Giro Aether Spherical, Bern Union MIPS Bern Union MIPS, Specialized S-Works Prevail II (MIPS), Bell Stratus MIPS Bell Stratus MIPS, Giro Synthe MIPS Giro Synthe MIPS, Lazer Chiru MIPS Lazer Chiru, Specialized Chamonix MIPS Specialized Chamonix MIPS, Bontrager Blaze WaveCel, Bontrager Blaze, Giro Syntax MIPS Giro Syntax MIPS, Bontrager Charge WaveCel Bontrager Charge, Giro Chronicle MIPS Giro Chronicle MIPS, Lazer Impala MIPS Lazer Impala MIPS, Specialized Ambush (MIPS) Specialized Ambush, Smith Route MIPS Smith Route MIPS, Lazer Compact DLX MIPS.

At the bottom are the Cannondale Quick, Lazer Genesis, Specialized Echelon II and Bern Watts, with only two stars. You can access the most current version of the ratings on the VT site.

Limitations and caveats

We are excited that these bicycle helmet STAR ratings have been published and updated. But we recognize some limitations of the VT program. A small percentage of the models on the market have been rated, all chosen by the manufacturers and sent to VT. Many of them are MIPS models. They were tested using the methodology that MIPS uses: sticky headform, tight strap, severe anvil angle, rough grippy anvil, no neck. That methodology couples the headform more tightly to the helmet than it would be in the real world. It would be expected to favor the MIPS models, unlike the Snell Foundation's research that showed no benefit from MIPS.

There is still no consensus that the Virginia Tech formula for rating helmets for concussion pinpoints the helmets that reduce concussion the best. Changes to the tested helmets to improve their scores might not result in fewer concussions in the field. But since established standards organizations have failed to respond to concussion concerns, these ratings represent a good start at testing helmets systematically for lower-level and rotational impact performance.

In addition, the VT testing uses only medium-sized helmets at ambient lab conditions. Normal standards testing uses more helmets, more impact locations and tests helmets that are cold, hot and wet. It is difficult to see how Tech drew general conclusions about the value of MIPS and about urban (skate-style) helmets needing improvement based only on their limited testing.

We think consumers should take note of the STAR rankings, but use them as one decision-making factor in their buying decisions. Avoiding a concussion is important, but not as important as knowing how your helmet performs in more severe impacts that can kill. There is no program that addresses that except the few helmets that Consumer Reports tests. We look for further development of the effort by Virginia Tech and others, and hope that they will pressure traditional standards-making organizations to move forward with similar testing. We have a page listing helmet models where the STAR ratings and Consumer Reports ratings concur. The December 2018 additions to Virginia Tech's ratings added only one helmet, the $18 Schwinn Intercept.

Some additional perspective

Here is a presentation that BHSI's Randy Swart did for the International Conference on Safety in Cycling in 2017. It outlines our hopes for the rating systems being developed by Virginia Tech and other universities in the UK, Europe and Australia.
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This page was revised on: March 18, 2021. BHSI logo