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The Helmet Update

Vol. 12, No 1- March, 1994
Previous Issue: June, 1993

Mandatory Helmet Laws Still the Big News

Helmet laws continue to be the hot topic in the bicycle helmet community. There is still no federal law requiring helmets, although bills are pending to authorize grants for helmet promotion and to require a federal helmet performance standard. Meantime, states and localities have been busy. When limited to children, the laws have a strong appeal to legislators who want to be seen as concerned with child welfare.

A chart on page 5 outlines where laws have been passed. At present more than a third of the population of the U.S. is covered by some form of bicycle helmet law covering some portion of the riders or passengers. Bills are under study in other state legislatures and cities, so this list is probably not up to date. We are supplying those who request them copies of some of the laws and an LAW position paper discussing how various provisions affect cyclists' interests. If your state or locality passes a law, send us a copy!

We get many calls from people looking for evaluations of the effectiveness of helmet laws. So far, we have yet to find anything definitive. Journal articles addressing the subject have been based on very small samples. Australia has had laws in effect for longer than anyone else, but they had laid such firm groundwork before passing their laws that in some places they already had more than 60% wearing rates, and their experience is probably not relevant here. If you have any article or study on local evaluations done in this country following the passage of a helmet law, we would be grateful for a copy!

ASTM Standard Moving Slowly

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has been working on a bicycle helmet standard for some time. That standard was finally issued last August. But you have not seen ASTM stickers showing up on many helmets, and there is a reason.

The ASTM standard is considerably more difficult to meet than the outdated (1984) ANSI standard, and its impact tests and other provisions are comparable to the Snell standard. The ASTM drop heights are 2.0 meters on the flat anvil and 1.2 meters on two hazard anvils, one round and one simulating a curb. Unfortunately, the lab research on the hazard anvils was done with composite headforms, rather than metal headforms. When the testing community discovered that composite headforms tend to absorb some of the drop energy and repeated the research using metal headforms, the triangular hazard anvil proved to have much too sharp an edge. Good helmets known to perform very well in the field were flunking. So in December the ASTM committee decided to modify the anvil to make it more a more realistic "curbstone" shape. As a consumer representative we supported the change, since the sharper anvil represented a condition not realistically found in the field. The committee also made other changes to improve the standard. The final wording of the changes must be approved by the Sports Equipment and Facilities committee members and then by another ASTM committee. Ballots have been sent out for return by April 14. The full process will take several months, and could be delayed if there are any negative votes. Meantime, not many helmets on the market will meet the original ASTM standard. The ones that do are good helmets, and possibly superior helmets, but they do not necessarily represent the best thing you can put on your head, since resistance to very sharp edges is not likely to be what you need in a real crash.

ASTM is looking at other standards as well as bicycle helmets. See the article in the attached copy of Headlines and the item below on multi-purpose helmets for more info.

As an ASTM member, BHSI has been participating in the activities of the committee and attending its meetings twice a year. The next committee meeting will be held May 17-19 in Montreal. New members are welcome.

Press for Multi-Purpose Helmets

In February the Centers for Disease Control sponsored a one day conference in Washington to discuss the need for a multi-purpose helmet standard. The conference was organized for CDC by Harborview. In short, children and adults who pursue a number of different sports want a helmet they can use for most active, violent sports. A typical example might be a helmet for skater/bicyclist/equestrian/skier use.

The conferees made it clear that parents are complaining about the cost of a helmet for each sport their child wants to play. It would be easier to promote helmets to such people if one helmet could be used for many sports. Some of the issues raised were:

  • What Sports? Equestrian helmet standards normally include a drop on a horseshoe anvil (for obvious reasons). Rock climbing falls, bicycle crashes, downhill racing crashes on skis or bicycles, in-line skating falls and trick skateboarding crashes all involve somewhat different levels of impact. A helmet is "tuned" for a particular range of impacts, and extending its performance can involve unwelcome compromises in thickness, weight, ventilation and other parameters. What sports should be included?

  • Multi-impact. Can a helmet be made to perform reliably for multiple impacts and still provide the protection needed for a maximum hit on pavement? Some of the sports the multi-purpose helmet would be used for (such as skateboarding) involve frequent contact with the ground. A one-use helmet such as that specified by all current bicycle helmet standards would not be appropriate for a sport involving many, mostly lesser, impacts. New materials may be necessary.

  • Coverage. There may be sports which require that the coverage of the helmet extend lower around the head, or that chin protection be provided, or even that full facial protection is necessary. Bicyclists generally will not tolerate too much more coverage than that required in current bicycle helmet standards due to the extra heat and weight.

  • Legal Liability. Manufacturers are hesitant to put out a product which says it is appropriate for many sports. They are concerned about the liability issue anyway, and if they think that injured bungee jumpers might sue they have to cover themselves against unanticipated legal problems. That might get expensive, although the major manufacturers at the conference said they were already covering themselves in one way or another.
Conference attendees noted that in fact today's bicycle helmets are being used for many sports, whether or not they precisely meet the needs of that sport, and have been performing well. In addition, the Snell Foundation has just issued a multi-sport standard, called Snell N-94 (see Snell Foundation News below). No helmets had been certified to it at the time of the Washington conference. When helmets are eventually certified to N-94, they are certified as suitable for bicycling, roller skating, skateboards and rock climbing.

These issues will be taken up again by ASTM in May. In fact, there were more than a dozen members of the ASTM helmet committee present at the Washington conference. ASTM had already looked at the possibility of a multi-sport helmet, but had thought that the demand was minimal. The conference demonstrated otherwise. We will have more on the subject in our next newsletter.

Snell Foundation News

When the Snell bicycle helmet standard became the de facto industry standard, the Foundation found itself in a unique position. Normally Snell has set its standard higher than the industry norm to distinguish the best helmets available. This pushes manufacturers to make better helmets. When the industry has caught up with Snell's standard, the Foundation has moved the mark higher.

In recent years Snell's standard has become the norm for the bicycle helmet industry. Hundreds of models are now certified. Since Snell charges by the sticker, it is a very big revenue item. Manufacturers have been irritated by the Foundation's per-sticker charge, which they can only avoid at their marketing and liability peril. This situation has been a large part of the reason for the drive by manufacturers to get an ASTM standard approved to replace the outdated ANSI standard, which will apparently never be updated. (It does not help any that Snell chaired the defunct ANSI committee.)

Faced with rising manufacturer discontent, Snell has made a number of moves in recent months, all of which hold potential benefit for consumers. The first is to improve communication with manufacturers and the public. Snell now holds regular meetings with manufacturers, usually during trade shows or ASTM meetings. It has developed pamphlets and other materials for consumers, and has already sent 700,000 pamphlets out without charge. (Call 516-862-6440 for yours!) And it has sent copies of its draft standards to manufacturers and members of the ASTM and ANSI committees for comment. Secondly, Snell has updated their own standard to include a positional stability (roll off) test of the retention system and a curbstone anvil impact. Rather than wait for its already announced September, 1995, revision, Snell has just announced a supplementary standard adding those tests to its current standard. Helmets certified to this supplementary standard will have a supplemental label inside, near the normal blue B-1990 standard sticker. Snell has also announced a cash discount policy for stickers, lowering the cost to the manufacturer to 30 cents.

Finally, Snell has shown considerable flexibility in the transition period from its 1990 standard to its 1995 standard.

Snell has released a new multi-sport standard, designated N-94. It certifies a helmet for bicycling, skateboarding, in-line skating, rock climbing and other non-motorized sports. The standard is more demanding than Snell's bicycle helmet standard in the area of head coverage required. The helmet is also required to protect in more than one impact.

What do these changes mean for the consumer? The reduction in Snell sticker prices to the manufacturer will not affect the price of the helmet much, if at all. A helmet which meets the supplementary standard has at least been tested to some extent for the ability of its strap system to keep the helmet on the wearer's head in a crash. The multi-sport helmets may be somewhat more protective than a bicycle helmet, and suitable for active teens who need a helmet for more than one sport. But for those who might be looking for the very best bike helmet, even the Snell supplementary sticker will not be enough, and without access to lab test results there is no other good source of ratings for the cream of the crop. Perhaps the next helmet article by Consumer Reports will shed some light.

Hal Fenner's Melon Drop

We were pleased to see Bicycling's article on the melon drop demo researched by Snell Foundation Director Hal Fenner. When we covered it in our June, 1993 newsletter we tried to make it clear that the helmeted melons last a long time--it's the helmet that splits on the third drop. Of course, the helmet can never be used for anything again after it has been dropped this way. Snell is religious about destroying completely any helmet that has been lab tested in any way in order to prevent accidental re-use by a real human.

More Bibliography, More Needed

We are sending you with this issue new additions to our annotated bibliography. The full bibliography on paper runs about 75 pages, and we have to charge $6 for photocopying and postage. You can get the bibliography on a PC-compatible disk (any format) as a Word, WordPerfect or plain ASCII text file for $2. Please remember to send us anything interesting you see in print about helmets!

BHSI News

We're still alive and well, with a budget this year of $6,000, all of it contributed by helmet consumers. If you see new papers, studies, new laws or other materials on helmets you think should be seen by a wider audience, send them to us so we can distribute them. We are now an Internet domain, and you can send us mail addressed to info@helmets.org


Randy Swart, Editor and Director Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute 4611 Seventh Street South Arlington, VA 22204 (703) 486-0100 Voice or fax email: info@helmets.org

Appendix:

Additions to the BHSI
Bibliography of Helmet Documents

Most are available from the BHSI documentation service.


American Society for Testing and Materials

ASTM Publishes Two New Standards for Bicycle Helmets

American Society for Testing and Materials, undated "immediate release"

6/1/93

Announces the promulgation of ASTM standard F1446, the "base" standard for headgear testing, and F1447, the bicycle helmet standard. Touts the new 90 degree hazard anvil, which subsequently proved too severe and required revision of the standard to more realistic levels. Also notes that the "roll-off" test for positional stability should be added in 1993. Dean Fisher is quoted saying these are "new areas," although both types of tests have been part of various foreign standards for years. There is no further specific information about the tests called out by the standard, but it is incorporated in our helmet standard comparison (BHSIDOC #185). For ASTM info contact Bill Brown at ASTM, (215) 299-5499.

BHSIDOC # 493 2 Pages Available: Photocopy.

Andersson, Larsson, Sandberg

Chin Strap Forces in Bicycle Helmets

Swedish Natl Testing and Research Institute-SP Report 1993:42

1/1/93

The authors mounted a crash test dummy horizontally, put one of three helmet types on its head and impacted it with a chunk of moving asphalt slanted at 28 degrees. They measured force at the buckle and measured g's in the headform with a triaxial accelerometer. The helmets were a hard shell, a non-shell and a multi-piece ribbed hardshell (presumably an Etto). Chin strap forces were in some cases significant, but remained well below requirements of current bicycle helmet standards. Rotational effects differed considerably, with the no-shell helmet gripping the road surface and rotating the headform, while the shelled helmets did not. Results differed from Hodgson's studies (BHSIDOC #357) with peak forces on the headform considerably higher for no-shell helmets, indicating more strongly that a hard shell provides better protection from rotational injury. Dummies wearing no-shells were subjected to bent necks during the impact, while those in shelled helmets were not. The authors theorize that their higher speed of impact (20 to 41 km/h vs. Hodgson's 10 km/h) might have made a difference, and call for further research with different impact angles and pavement surfaces. They conclude that positional stability is more important for child helmets than sheer strap strength. Key factors are coverage and fit. In all cases straps were made looser during the crash when the helmet's liner compressed. The authors mention other Swedish research showing that 91% of bicyclist fatalities from head injuries involve a collision with a motor vehicle. They also note their belief that their test rig can test all relevant parameters better than a conventional drop rig. Tests of buckles releasing at various force levels indicated that the new draft European child helmet standard requiring self-release buckles at 60 to 90 Newtons to prevent playground "hangings" can be implemented without children losing their helmets in normal crashes.

BHSIDOC # 487 31 Pages Available: Photocopy.

Armijo, Vic

A Matter of Downhill Safety

Velo News, March 21, 1994

3/21/94

Downhill bicycle racing has gotten very fast and very competitive. Crashes are increasing, and riders are demanding safety precautions when courses are laid out, and better protection in the helmets they wear. Some are already using motocross helmets with full face protection. Bell and Giro are both developing full face helmets. Giro's has its extended rear portion to keep it on the head, while Bell is using the Rebok pump liner. Other safety equipment includes body armor and padded bras.

BHSIDOC # 501 1 Page Available: Photocopy.

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

The Helmet Update June, 1993

Bicycle Helmet Safety Institute

6/1/93

Articles on Mandatory Helmet Laws, ASTM Standard Nears Approval, Mixed Bag of Helmets for 1993, Snell Funds Research Projects, Snell Reduces Severity of Strap Test, WHO Conference, Hal Fenner's Melon Drop, additional bibliography entries. Included a fact sheet from a Johns Hopkins monograph.

BHSIDOC # 486 17 Pages Available: Photocopy.

Cote, et al

Bicycle Helmet Use Among Maryland Children

Pediatrics, Vol 89, No. 6, June, 1992

6/1/92

We missed this one when it came out in 1992. It reports on increases in helmet use by children after laws were passed in Howard (4% to 47%) and Montgomery (8% to 19%) counties. Samples were small (246 on July 28, 1990, and 202 on May 4, 1991). There is no explanation for observations in Baltimore County (where no laws were passed) of 19% in 1990 and 4% in 1991, although those outcomes were within statistical confidence levels for the small sample, and variations due to season and day of week are. The increase in Howard County is attributed to promotion in addition to passage of the law.

BHSIDOC # 496 3 Pages Available: Photocopy.

Dimond, Guy

Keeping Your Lid On

New Cyclist (UK), 4 September 1993

9/4/93

Sales of helmets in the UK have rebounded after dropping when their national consumer magazine (Which?) published a controversial article in 1991 (BHSIDOC #371) flunking a number of helmets. This article says "the industry" now considers the Snell standard to be the most relevant and useful one. It covers basics on construction, ventilation, materials, weight and other elements. Has actual weights--not manufacturers' claims--for the 16 models reviewed. Prices seem very high: Giro Ventoux $148; Specialized Sub 6 $120; lowest range $37). A well-done article from an interesting magazine by a British author with no axes to grind.

BHSIDOC # 4996 Pages Available: Photocopy.

European Committee for Standardization - CEN

Helmets for Pedal Cyclists -- Draft Standard

European Committee for Standardization - CEN

6/1/94

Another draft of the CEN (Centre European de Normalization) bicycle helmet standard. It tests 16 samples, using a 1.5 meter guided free-fall onto flat and "kerbstone" anvils. Has a rolloff test for positional stability, and an artificial aging test. Some sections appear to be unfinished, so further revisions are likely. Dean Fisher of Bell says in BHSIDOC #491 that this draft has been shelved until June of 1995.

BHSIDOC # 49411 Pages Available: Photocopy.

Fisher, Dean

F08.53 on Headgear: Growing in Size and Scope

ASTM Standardization News, February, 1994.

2/1/94

A description of the ASTM helmet committee from the Dean of helmet standards. Fisher describes how the F08.53 Committee has grown until 65 or 70 members attend the semi-annual meetings, working on 11 or 12 standards during each two-day session. He notes that bicycle helmet sales have exploded from 5,000 per year in 1975 to an estimated 8 million in 1993. He also reports that the European CEN standard draft had just been shelved until at least June of 1995.

BHSIDOC # 4913 Pages Available: Photocopy.

Frothingham, Steve

Various articles on the helmet industry, 1993

Bicycle Retailer and Industry News

1/1/93

This author produced many insightful articles on the helmet industry for this dealers' publication in 1993. Some topics: Bell drops Snell certification on its BSI low-end line; Giro and Pro-Tec battle diverters of their product to discount warehouses; heated competition forces lower prices in 1994; LT helmets to continue in business after Chapter 11 reorganization; Trek doubles helmet capacity, Brancale set to re-enter U.S. market; Bell adds 160,000 square feet to its Rantoul facility making mostly bicycle helmets; new Helmet Worx design may eliminate roll off; 1993 bicycle sales rebound to 1991 level of 2.4 million; SEI emerges as contender to Snell certifying helmets to ASTM standard; Troxel uses honeycomb in helmets; legislative frenzy puts helmet laws on books. We hope to send you some of these in future newsletters when we have permission from BRIN. In the meantime, contact Bicycle Retailer and Industry News, 1444-C S. St. Francis Drive, Santa Fe, NM 87501, tel (505) 988-5099 for subscription information.

BHSIDOC # 500 Available: From BRIN, not from BHSI.

Rakoczy, Larissa.

On the Path to Improved Safety for NY State Bicyclists

Report of NY Legislative Commission on Critical Transportation Choices

4/1/94

Subtitled "A Report About Bicycling with Recommendations for Improving Bicycle Safety in New York State." Leads off with statistics and trends on bicycle injury in the U.S. and NY, profiling cyclists and their crashes, then discussing helmets. Briefly covers construction and standards, then turns to NY State laws, bicycle safety programs and helmet usage. Covers mandatory helmet laws in other states, but only up to mid-1993. Has a section on bicycle facilities, then recommendations for laws requiring that: 1)Only helmets with stickers saying they meet Snell, ANSI or other recognized standards may be sold; 2)Anyone renting a bike must have a helmet; 3)Bike shops must post a sign explaining the NY state mandatory helmet law; 4)New bikes must have a helmet pamphlet attached; 5)NY DMV statistics must specify if riders in crashes were wearing helmets; 6)The NY education curriculum must be reevaluated. Charts are appended showing how other states define bicycles and what they require for lights, reflectors, etc. This study would be especially useful for anyone doing a helmet campaign in New York State. Copies are available from: New York State Legislative Commission on Critical Transportation Choices, 146 State Street, Room 302, Albany, NY 12207, tel. (518) 455-3155. We do not intend to reprint it.

BHSIDOC # 498 Available: From NY State, not from BHSI

Outdoor Empire Publishing Company

Team Helmet. Bike Safety Book (Coloring book)

Outdoor Empire Publishing Co, 1993

11/4/93

A 16 page coloring book for children K-3 covering various aspects of bike safety, starting with helmets. Has connect-the-dots, signs, signals and a certificate on the back making the bear a member of team helmet with a rules card to carry in your wallet or tape in your helmet. (One hopes that the tape adhesive is compatible with the helmet materials.) Not available from us--contact Outdoor Empire Publishing Co at (206) 624-3845 for pricing.

BHSIDOC # 484 Pages Available: From Outdoor Empire, not from BHSI.

Rodgers, Gregory

Bicycle Use and Hazard Patterns in the US, and Options for Injury Reduction

U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission

11/16/93

A 200 page study of bicycle use patterns and hazard patterns in the U.S. The estimates are based on two surveys: a study of 463 head injured cyclists and a national random-digit-dial sample of 1,254 cyclists willing to talk to a phone survey. The telephone survey relied on the cyclists to recall and report accurately their riding mileage and other information about their riding. Despite the impossibility of generating accurate data that way, the study uses the survey to draw many of its conclusions. Bicycle riding is described as "a risky activity, as reflected by the large numbers of injuries and deaths..." Some findings: 67 million cyclists, 15 billion cycling hours per year, one million injuries, (that's one per 15,000 hours of cycling), injuries cost society $8 billion ($120 per cyclist) annually, head injuries cost $3 billion, less than one-third of nighttime cyclists use lights, 71% of the injured are under 15, risk rises over age 64, 30% injured head or face, young children suffered a higher proportion of head injuries, less than three percent of injury victims are admitted to a hospital, nighttime riding was 3.4 times riskier than daytime, risk on neighborhood streets is seven to eight times that of bike paths, and 87% of head injuries involve collision with a motor vehicle. For helmets: 18% of adult riders and 15% of child riders wear them most of the time, over half began wearing helmets in the past two years, 21% of unhelmeted riders said helmets were unnecessary, helmet use increases with riding time and education level, helmet use increases with age for frequent riders but decreases with age for occasional riders. Small samples precluded conclusions on helmet effectiveness. There is a lot of analysis here. It weighs more than a pound and it will cost us $13 to send to you, so try to get a copy from CPSC by contacting Gregory Rodgers, Ph.D., Directorate for Economic Analysis, Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC 20207. The author compared characteristics of the group of injured cyclists with the recollections of the random sample cyclists to draw conclusions about risk factors. Some cyclists believe this is a misleading study because of the sampling techniques.

BHSIDOC # 490 200 Pages Available: From CPSC. Contact Gregory Rogers, PhD, Directorate for Economic Analysis (301) 504-0962 Or we can photocopy it if it's really necessary for $13.

Ruch-Ross and O'Connor

Bicycle Helmet Counseling by Pediatricians: A Random National Survey

American Journal of Public Health, Vol 83, No. 5, May, 1993

5/1/93

A sample of pediatricians showed that 80% of those who counsel patients on health matters usually mention bicycle helmets. The percentage goes up among doctors with personal experience with head-injured patients, and among doctors whose own children wear helmets. Although other studies have questioned the impact of a doctor's counseling on helmet purchases, the majority of those surveyed in this group felt it was important enough to be included in subjects to be covered during regularly scheduled visits. The charts in our copy are unreadable.

BHSIDOC # 495 3 Pages Available: Photocopy.

Savage, Jim

Bike Helmets: A Study of Their Use by Children of the Eau Claire Area

Eau Claire Police Dept., City of Eau Claire, WI

7/15/93

Reports on a survey of 1,062 fourth and fifth grade children in Eau Claire schools. The students said that: 33% own bike helmets, but only 25% of them wear the helmet every time they ride; 11% said their parents wear helmets, and they were more likely to say they wear a helmet every time they ride; 78% of children who said they own helmets thought helmets prevent injuries; 52% of children who said they did not own a helmet thought helmets prevent injuries; 27% said they did not need a helmet for the riding they do; 46% said they had been involved in bicycle crashes. Grade school teachers know well that the responses on any school survey should be taken with a grain of salt, but this study gives insights into the students attitudes, with charts of typical responses and many individual comments recorded. The author concludes that: many students do not understand the importance of bicycle helmets in preventing injures; many believe that riding close to home they do not need a helmet; parents attitudes are a determining factor, and helmet cost may affect whether or not a child owns a helmet.

BHSIDOC # 502 22 Pages Available: Photocopy.

Smith, Tees, Thom, Hurt

Evaluation and Replication of Impact Damage to Bicycle Helmets

Paper presented at Am. Assn for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine.

6/30/93

The authors collected 72 impacted helmets, primarily from manufacturers' trade-ins. They estimated head injury and impact surface from the rider's letter. New helmets of the same models were placed on rigid urethane headforms and impacted to produce similar helmet damage. Peak acceleration to replicate the damage was 38 g to 179 g, while liner crush measured .8 to 6.6 mm. The authors believe their sample represents the lower end of the impact spectrum. They also note that the rigid headform was a poor proxy for the human head to replicate damage to the helmets. This probably invalidates any of their conclusions. The helmet damage was replicated with the rigid headforms in drops of less than 1 meter in most cases. More than half the helmets were impacted on the front, and only one sustained a second impact in the same location. Seventy two percent had impacted on a flat surface, 22% on blunt objects and two on sharp edges. The authors concluded that current standards are adequate for the crashes simulated, but fear that if energy levels in standards are increased, the helmets could be less protective for this range of relatively minor crashes. Not available from BHSI. Contact the Am.Assn. for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine.

BHSIDOC # 488 Pages Available: Not available from BHSI. Contact AAAAM.

Thomas, Steven et al

Effectiveness of Bicycle Helmets in Preventing Head Injury in Children: Case-Control Study

British Medical Journal, 15 January 1994, Volume 308

1/15/94

An Australian emergency room study based on 445 children, 102 of them with head injuries. Three quarters were male, and age did not seem to be a factor. Most of the riders reported that they had fallen without contact with another vehicle. Head injuries were more likely to occur on pavement than on gravel or dirt. The authors conclude that bicycle helmets reduce the risk of head injury by 63%, and the risk of loss of consciousness by 86%. They note that an emergency room study is biased because riders who fall but are not injured would not come in, so if helmets are effective the helmeted riders would be less likely to need treatment at all. They concluded that an unhelmeted rider would probably not be inhibited about seeking treatment for a head injury despite the state's mandatory helmet law. They also noted that their study did not address the possibility that non-helmet wearers take more risks.

BHSIDOC # 489 4 Pages Available: Photocopy.

Zahradnik, Fred

A Better Bif Bucket

Bicycling Magazine, October, 1993

11/1/93

What technical editor Zahradnik does not like about helmets: too few sizes, scratchy straps, fiddly adjustments, fussy buckles, skimpy coverage in superlight models. The author thinks the "lighter, cooler, better looking" trend has perhaps reached and surpassed its limits. Explains some elements of the Snell and ASTM standards. Urges readers to write to ASTM and Snell about standards and complain to dealers and manufacturers.

BHSIDOC # 492 1 Page Available: Photocopy.

Appendix 2:

Headlines

The newsletter of the World Health Organization's
Helmet Initiative. Available from
Phil Graitcer
Emory University School of Public Health
1462 Clifton Rd. NE, Atlanta, GA 30329. Tel.
(404) 727-9377. email: graitcer@sph.emory.edu




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